The aftermath of a sexual assault can be as traumatic and terrifying as the attack itself. Survivor injuries extend well beyond any physical trauma. According to the Know Your IX, 19% of women and 5%–6% of men will experience sexual assault during college. Additionally, 21% of transgender, genderqueer, and non-binary students experienced sexual assault during college, according to RAINN.
While these crimes leave many victims feeling hopeless and humiliated, there are valuable services and support that can help, both on and off campus. Unfortunately, these services often are never utilized due to the survivor being unaware or fearful of the processes.
To better understand a sexual assault victim’s options, I consulted Virginia Commonwealth University’s Police Department (VCUPD), a recent recipient of accolades such as the Leadership in Victims Services Award by the International Association of Chiefs of Police. VCUPD is becoming well known for their progressive approach to removing barriers to sexual assault reporting by adopting survivor-oriented strategies such as the You Have Options Program (YHOP). I spoke with Sergeant Chelsey McCarty from VCUPD about the best steps to take following an assault on any college campus.
Related: Campus Safety and Rape
What is the first thing to do?
The first step is the most vital, as safety is the main priority. Get to a safe place and stay there before reaching out for help. It’s important to go to a hospital to seek medical attention. A medical evaluation will identify injuries that may or may not be visible, and a doctor will be able to assess them. This also gives the option to begin a forensic evaluation, which contributes to the prosecution process. Timeliness is important in forensic evaluations but can be done as far out as five days for survivors who had difficulty deciding whether to come forward.
Reporting the assault
The steps following the medical evaluation are all up to the individual. The assault can be reported to the campus or local police department, and/or victims may seek counseling. When speaking to the police or campus safety, keep in mind that every campus handles these situations differently. For example, VCU has YHOP (You Have Options Program). According to Sergeant McCarty, this program “puts the victim in the driver’s seat,” meaning they have control over everything that happens.
Victims can report through an online forum, over the phone, using an advocate to report their case, or in person. College administrators must record the allegation in the school’s daily crime log under the Clery Act, which requires higher education institutions to be transparent about crime on campus. Reports are anonymous and only include the statistics for your school’s Annual Security Report. But it’s up to the victim what happens next: a case can be built around the report or it can be left as is.
Not every college has a program like YHOP, so it's important to look at your university’s website and find more information about their programs. Find what counseling resources they offer and what they can do for safety.
Going through the judicial process isn’t the right step for every victim. In many cases, this could involve facing their attacker, repeating the story, and possibly causing additional emotional stress. There’s nothing wrong with not wanting to go through with a judicial process. But some victims find prosecution to be an empowering process, even therapeutic in a way. A judicial process may also shed light on sexual assault and raise more awareness for the heinous act. The right course is highly unique to each survivor; what’s most important is that you feel safe and comfortable with what you choose to do.
Title IX is a federal civil rights law that was passed in order to prohibit sexual discrimination. Most colleges have a Title IX Coordinator who can help students walk through the aftermath of an assault. Keep in mind that Title IX Coordinators are mandatory reporters. This means if an assault is reported to them, they are legally obligated to file a report. This goes for campus police, security, RAs, and professors as well. Confidential resources are typically counselors and victim advocates; they’re not legally obligated to report an assault if a victim prefers to seek support but are reluctant to officially file. This varies from campus to campus, so it’s important to research your college’s confidential resources if you haven’t yet decided what to do.
You can learn more about Title IX rights here. Victims can also dial 800-656-HOPE to speak to a trained staff member regarding reporting and next steps. It’s a free confidential service, and more information about the National Sexual Assault Hotline is available here.
Remember, it doesn’t matter what you were wearing, how much you had to drink, your race, your gender, or your sexuality. Your assault is never your fault.